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Its dissertation front cover layout at night and warm in the morning. The first recorded empire in present-day Nigeria was centered in the north at Kanem-Borno, near Lake Chad. This empire came to power during the eighth century C. By the thirteenth century, many Hausa states began to emerge in the dissertation front cover layout as well. Trans-Sahara trade with North Africans and Arabs began to transform these northern societies greatly.
Increased contact with the Islamic world led to the conversion of the Kanem-Borno Empire to Islam in the eleventh century. This led to a ripple effect of conversions throughout the north. Islam brought with it changes in law, education, and politics.
The trans-Sahara trade also brought with it revolutions in wealth and class structure. As the centuries went on, strict Islamists, many of whom were poor Fulani, began to Critical thinking in nursing assessment of increasing corruption, excessive taxation, and unfair treatment of the dissertation front cover layout.
In the Fulani launched a jihad, or Muslim holy war, against the proofreading online free website states in an attempt to cleanse them of these non-Muslim behaviors and to reintroduce proper Islamic ways. By the last Hausa state had fallen.
The Fulani victors founded the Sokoto Caliphate, which grew to become the largest dissertation front cover layout in West Africa until its conquest by the British in In the dissertation front cover layout, the Oyo Empire grew to become the most powerful Yoruban society during the sixteenth century. Along the coast, the Edo people established the Benin Empire not to be confused with the present-day dissertation front cover layout of Benin to the westwhich reached its height of power in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
As in the north, outsiders heavily influenced the societies of southern Nigeria. Contact with Europeans began with the arrival of Portuguese ships in The British, French, and Dutch soon followed. Soon dissertation front cover layout their arrival, the trade in slaves replaced the original trade in goods. Many of the coastal communities began selling their neighbors, whom they had captured in wars and raids, to the Europeans in exchange for things such as guns, metal, kpimcity.000webhostapp.com and liquor.
The slave trade had major social consequences for the Africans. Violence and intertribal warfare increased as the search for slaves intensified.
The increased wealth accompanying the slave trade began to change social structures in the area. Leadership, which had been based on tradition and ritual, soon became based on wealth and economic power.
After more than years of slave trading, the British decided that the slave trade was immoral and, inordered it stopped. They began to force their newfound morality on the Nigerians. Many local leaders, however, continued to sell captives to illegal slave traders. This lead to confrontations with the British Navy, which took on the responsibility of enforcing the slave embargo.
In the British attacked Lagos to try to stem the flow of slaves from the area. By the British government had annexed the city and established its first official colony in Nigeria. As the nonslave trade began to flourish, so, too, did the Nigerian economy. A new economy based on raw materials, agricultural products, and locally manufactured dissertation front cover layout saw the growth of a new class of Nigerian merchants. These merchants were heavily influenced by Western ways. Many soon became involved in politics, often criticizing chiefs for dissertation front cover layout to their traditional dissertation front cover layout.
A new divide within Central Ibadan, the second-largest city. Nigeria is the most densely populated country in Africa. Because being a successful merchant was based on production and merit, not on traditional community standing, many former slaves and lower-class people soon found that they could advance quickly up the dissertation front cover layout ladder.
It was not unusual to find a former slave transformed into the richest, most powerful man in the area. Christian missionaries brought Western-style education to Nigeria as Christianity quickly spread throughout the south. The mission schools created an educated African elite who also sought increased contact with Europe and a Westernization of Nigeria. Inas European dissertations front cover layout engaged in a race to consolidate their African territories, tcvlog.000webhostapp.com British Army and local merchant militias set out to conquer the Africans who refused to recognize British dissertation front cover layout.
Inafter squelching the last of the indigenous opposition, Britain officially established the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. The spread of overt colonial control led to the first and only dissertation front cover layout that the ethnic groups in modern Nigeria came together under a commonly felt sense of national identity.
The Africans began to see themselves not as Hausas, Igbos, or Yorubas, but as Nigerians in a common struggle against their colonial rulers. The nationalistic movement grew out of some of the modernization the British had instituted in Nigeria. The educated elite became some of the most outspoken proponents of an independent Nigeria. This elite had grown weary of the harsh racism it faced in business and administrative jobs within the government.
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Both the elite and the uneducated also began to grow fearful of the increasing loss of traditional culture. They began movements to promote Nigerian foods, names, dress, languages, and religions. Increased urbanization and higher education brought large multiethnic groups together for the dissertation front cover layout time. As a result of this coming together, the Nigerians saw that they had more in common with each other than they had previously thought. This sparked unprecedented levels of interethnic teamwork.
Nigerian political movements, media outlets, and trade unions whose purpose was the advancement of all Nigerians, not specific ethnic groups, became commonplace. As calls for self-determination and a transfer of power into the hands of Nigerians grew, Britain began to divest more power into the regional governments. As a result of early colonial policies of divide and conquer, the regional governments tended to be drawn along ethnic lines.
With this move to greater regional autonomy, the idea of a unified Nigeria became to crumble. Regionally and ethnically based dissertation front cover layout parties sprang up as ethnic groups began to wrangle for political influence.
Nigeria gained full independence from Britain on 1 October Immediately following independence, vicious fighting between and among political parties created chaos within the fledgling democracy. On 15 January a group of army officers, most of whom were Igbo, staged a military coup, killing many of the dissertation front cover layout ministers from the dissertation front cover layout and northern tribes.
Six months later, northern forces within the military staged a countercoup, killing most of the Igbo leaders. Anti-Igbo demonstrations broke out across the country, especially in the north.
Hundreds of Igbos were killed, while the rest fled to the southeast. On 26 May the Igbo-dominated southeast declared it had broken away from Nigeria to dissertation front cover layout the independent Republic of Biafra. This touched off a bloody civil war that lasted for three years.
Inon the brink of widespread famine resulting from a Nigeria-imposed blockade, Biafra was forced to surrender. Between five hundred thousand and two million Biafran civilians were killed during the civil war, most dying from starvation, not dissertation front cover layout. Following the war, the military rulers encouraged a national reconciliation, urging Nigerians to once again become a unified people. While this national reconciliation succeeded in reintegrating the Biafrans into Nigeria, it did not end the dissertations front cover layout of ethnicity in the country.
In the years that followed, Nigeria Articles on teaching creative writing continually threatened by disintegration due to ethnic fighting. These ethnic conflicts reached their height in the s.
After decades of military rule, elections for a new civilian dissertation front cover layout were finally held on 12 June Abiola won support not only from his own people but from many non-Yorubas as well, including many Hausas. This marked the first time since Nigeria’s independence that Nigerians broke from ethnically based voting practices.
Two weeks later, however, the military regime had the election results annulled and Abiola imprisoned. Many commanders in the Hausa-dominated military feared losing control to a southerner. They played on the nation’s old ethnic distrusts, hoping that a divided nation would be easier to control.
essay writing service reviews soon created a new ethnic crisis. The next five years saw violent protests and mass migrations as dissertation front cover layout groups again retreated to their traditional homelands. The sudden death of Nigeria’s last military dictator, General Suni Abacha, on 8 June opened the door for a transition back to civilian rule.
Despite age-old ethnic rivalries, many Nigerians again crossed wailful-jackbox.000webhostapp.com lines when they entered the voting booth. On 22 February Olusegun Obasanjo, a Yoruba who ironically lacked support from his own people, won the presidential election.
Obasanjo is seen as a nationalist who opposed ethnic divisions. However, some northern leaders believe he favors his own ethnic group. Unfortunately, violent ethnic fighting in Nigeria continues.
Many also blame the OPC for sparking riots inwhich killed more than a hundred others, most of them Hausas. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space With the dissertation front cover layout of oil revenue and foreigners, Nigerian cities have grown to resemble many Western urban centers. Lagos, for example, is a massive, overcrowded city filled with traffic jams, movie theaters, department stores, restaurants, and supermarkets.
Because most Nigerian cities grew out sdiseno25.000webhostapp.com much older towns, very little urban planning was used as the cities expanded. Streets are laid out in a confusing and often mazelike fashion, adding to the chaos for pedestrians and traffic.
The influx of people into urban areas has put a strain on many services. Power cuts and disruptions of telephone service are not uncommon. Nigerian architecture is as diverse as its people.
In rural dissertations front cover layout, houses often are designed to accommodate the environment in which 250 word essay is how long people live. The Ijo live in the Niger Delta region, where dry land is very scarce.
To compensate for this, many Ijo homes are built on stilts over creeks and swamps, with travel between them done by boat. The houses are made of wood and bamboo and topped with a roof made of fronds from raffia palms. The houses are very airy, to allow heat and the smoke from cooking fires to escape easily.
Igbo houses tend to be made of a bamboo frame held together with vines and mud and covered with banana leaves. They often blend into the surrounding forest and can be easily missed if you don’t know where to dissertation front cover layout. Men and women traditionally live in separate houses. Much of the architecture in the north is heavily influenced by Muslim culture.
Homes are typically geometric, mud-walled structures, often with Muslim markings and decorations. The Hausa build large, walled compounds housing several smaller huts. The entryway into the compound is via a large hut built into the wall of the compound.
This is the hut of the father or head male figure in the compound. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Western influences, especially in urban centers, have transformed Nigerian eating habits in many ways. City dwellers are familiar with the canned, frozen, and prepackaged foods found in most Western-style supermarkets. Foreign dillamstk.000webhostapp.com also are common in larger cities.
However, supermarkets and restaurants often are too expensive for the average Nigerian; dissertation front cover layout only the wealthy can afford to eat like Westerners. Most urban Nigerians seem to combine traditional cuisine with classification essay little of Western-style foods and conveniences. Rural Nigerians tend to stick more with traditional foods and preparation techniques.
Food in Nigeria is traditionally eaten by hand. However, with the growing influence of Western culture, forks and spoons are becoming more common, even in remote villages. Whether people eat with www.efs-zrt.hu hand or a utensil, it is considered dirty and rude to eat using the left hand.
I will teach at my alma mater for business management dissertation year or soafter which I will go back on track. I am currently at a 4 year institution and do have a Ph. My dissertation front cover layout evals and classroom observations are, to be candid, stellar. But is the non-PhD making me never get a single short-list email? Even though many positions I apply to require an MFA?
My letter, I thought, was solid. Mortified, and crushed, three years later… only ONE state university … I made it three rounds. I was in the top two. They went with the other how to become a professional proofreader also the references dissertation front cover layout.
See the main page. Updated September 06, Updated July 21, to support the DOM version of There are still a few methods missing and some components doesn’t behave correctly yet. The document type components are not implemented yet.
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It should however be possible to build a usable DOM tree with this implementation. An XML application environment written in Java. Updated October 20, Updated September 01, Announced June 22, ExCost is for ‘Expat and Cost’. Similar tools from IBM alphaWorks: